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鲁迅文化

英语作文 时间:2024-02-12 14:08:56 WORD下载 PDF下载 投诉 投稿

   对鲁迅文化观的研究仍然是新世纪的一个持续不衰的话题。与以往不同的是,中国学人在深化鲁迅与中国文化的话题时,不再过于注重鲁迅的“反传统”或对鲁迅的“反传统”作偏于一端的简单理解,而是采取了更科学、更辩证、更实事求是的分析态度。王富仁的系列长文《鲁迅与中国文化》认为,鲁迅与中国文化的关系是:鲁迅“并不绝对否定中国古代的任何一种文化,但同时也失望于中国古代所有的文化”,鲁迅“了解中国古代的文化传统,同时也毅然地反叛了中国古代的文化传统”。王富仁还特别注意把鲁迅放在中国文化历史发展的宏大建构中审视鲁迅思想与中国文化主体的内在联系及生成,这对于如何建设中国的现代文化,具有十分深刻的启迪意义。陆耀东在《“五四”时期的鲁迅与传统文化》中指出,“鲁迅当时对以儒家文化为主体的传统文化整体确持否定态度,但对其他文化派别(如墨家)和儒家内部的异化的声音(从屈原到曹雪芹)则有所肯定。”张永泉在《从天地观看鲁迅早期文化思想》中认为,鲁迅留日时期“对以普崇万物特别是敬天礼地为‘本根’的中国传统文化是完全肯定的,对以此为‘始基’的‘一切睿知义理与邦国家族之制’是完全肯定的。”只是到了五四时期才展开对封建家族制度和礼教制度激烈而深刻的批判,并“深刻揭露了中国传统天地观的本质,原来这不过是历代儒者为了推行他们的思想主张而臆造出的骗人的手段。”胡兆铮的《鲁迅笔下的“天”及其他》指出,“天”与“无”在传统文化意义上是相通的,而鲁迅终生坚定不移的战斗目标则是与“天”争斗。沈庆利的《试论鲁迅的农民战争观》认为,鲁迅尽管没有全面否定农民战争,但鲁迅确实更多地“从文化心理学的角度,把农民战争和农民起义作为特定的历史文化现象,加以独到而深邃的剖析和批判。”主要“批判了农民战争的野蛮性和残忍性”,“抨击了农民起义和农民战争的发动者”,揭示他们“与原始宗教的密切联系”。

   The study of Lu Xun's cultural view is still a constant topic in the new century. Different from the past, when Chinese scholars deepen the topic of Lu Xun and Chinese culture, they no longer pay too much attention to Lu Xun's "anti tradition" or make a simple understanding of Lu Xun's "anti tradition", but adopt a more scientific, dialectical and realistic attitude of analysis. According to Wang Furen's long series "Lu Xun and Chinese culture", the relationship between Lu Xun and Chinese culture is that Lu Xun "does not absolutely deny any kind of culture in ancient China, but at the same time is disappointed in all the cultures in ancient China". Lu Xun "understands the cultural traditions in ancient China, and at the same time resolutely rebel against the cultural traditions in ancient China". Wang Furen also paid special attention to Lu Xun in the grand construction of the development of Chinese culture and history to examine the internal connection and generation of Lu Xun's thought and Chinese cultural subject, which is of great enlightenment significance for how to build Chinese modern culture. Lu Yaodong pointed out in Lu Xun and traditional culture during the May 4th movement that "Lu Xun at that time had a negative attitude towards the whole traditional culture with Confucianism as the main body, but had a positive attitude towards other cultural schools (such as Mohist School) and the alienated voice within Confucianism (from Qu Yuan to Cao Xueqin)." In Zhang Yongquan's "looking at Lu Xun's early cultural thoughts from heaven and earth", he believed that Lu Xun's stay in Japan "fully affirmed the traditional Chinese culture with universal respect for all things, especially for heaven and earth as the" root ", and the" all wise knowledge of justice and the system of state and family "based on it." It was only in the May 4th period that the fierce and profound criticism of the feudal family system and the ethical system was launched, and "it profoundly exposed the essence of the traditional Chinese view of heaven and earth. It turned out that this was only a deceptive means invented by the Confucians of all ages in order to carry out their ideas." Hu Zhaozheng's "heaven" and others in Lu Xun's works points out that "heaven" and "nothing" are interlinked in the sense of traditional culture, while Lu Xun's unswerving fighting goal throughout his life is to fight against "heaven". Shen Qingli's "on Lu Xun's view of peasant war" holds that although Lu Xun did not completely deny peasant war, Lu Xun did "take peasant war and peasant uprising as specific historical and cultural phenomena from the perspective of cultural psychology, and make unique and profound analysis and criticism." It mainly criticizes the barbarity and cruelty of the peasant war, criticizes the initiators of the peasant uprising and the peasant war, and reveals their "close connection with the primitive religion".

   关于鲁迅和宗教文化的关系,王富仁在《鲁迅与中国文化》中认为,鲁迅与“佛家文化对于物质世界虚幻性的揭示和对于人生痛苦的解析”产生过强烈的共鸣,并受到佛家文化动态地体验性地把握社会人生的方式的影响。但鲁迅对佛家文化的虚无主义人生哲学持否定态度。哈迎飞的系列长文《鲁迅与佛教文化关系论》从“鲁迅、尼采与佛教”、“以一身来担人间苦”、“谈鬼物正像人间”三个不同的角度细致、深入地分析了鲁迅与佛教文化的关系,不仅揭示与论证出鲁迅与佛教或远或近的内在原因,还对佛教对鲁迅思想与创作的实际影响及意义做了阐释。管恩森《耶稣·撒旦·鲁迅——鲁迅与基督教关系发微》侧重揭示了鲁迅与基督教在精神层面的契合点:“精神主体的推重”、“面对庸众的先觉者”、“反传统的异端力量”。王家平的《再论鲁迅与中外宗教文化》对鲁迅与宗教文化的关系以及鲁迅在接受宗教文化的过程中思想的发展变化做了系统的梳理。

   As for the relationship between Lu Xun and religious culture, in Lu Xun and Chinese culture, Wang Furen believed that Lu Xun and "the revelation of the illusory nature of the material world and the analysis of the suffering of life" had a strong resonance, and were influenced by the dynamic and experiential way of holding social life by the Buddhist culture. However, Lu Xun had a negative attitude towards the nihilism philosophy of life of Buddhist culture. In his long series of essays on the relationship between Lu Xun and Buddhist culture, ha Yingfei analyzed the relationship between Lu Xun and Buddhist culture from three different perspectives: "Lu Xun, Nietzsche and Buddhism", "to bear the hardships of the world with one's body" and "to talk about ghosts just like the world". It not only revealed and proved the internal reasons of Lu Xun and Buddhism, but also revealed the reality of Buddhism to Lu Xun's thought and creation The international influence and significance are explained. Guan en Sen '. Wang Jiaping's re discussion on Lu Xun and Chinese and foreign religious culture systematically combs the relationship between Lu Xun and religious culture and the development and change of Lu Xun's thoughts in the process of accepting religious culture.

   更多的研究成果侧重对鲁迅文化思想做整体考察。李新宇的《鲁迅:启蒙路上的艰难持守》和《1928:新文化危机中的鲁迅》认为,鲁迅在五四之后面对的矛盾和介入的论争,每一次都与五四新文化和现代知识分子的启蒙立场面临的危机有关,“鲁迅的思想无论怎样发展变化,都始终守护着五四新文化运动的启蒙立场和在此基础上形成的现代知识分子话语。”赵树勤在《新文化精神的孤独的坚守者》中指出,对于五四运动和新文化运动,“鲁迅都既不是前驱者和领导者,也并不太主动积极。”鲁迅积极追求的是实际的现实主义的科学精神。钱理群在《最后十年,鲁迅的锋芒所向》中认为,对“真的知识阶级”的认定和追求,以及“思想行动”与“实际的运动”的结合,构成了鲁迅“最后十年”的文化业绩,“1930年代,鲁迅更为关注的是对‘今之海’所代表的现代中国文化的批判性审视。”他又在《鲁迅与现代评论派的论战》中详细考察了鲁迅与陈源等现代评论派论战的情况,认为这场论战在中国现代思想史、文化史、文学史乃至中国知识分子精神史上都有重要意义。薛毅在《论鲁迅的文化论战》中对鲁迅与胡适、陈源、梁实秋、周作人、林语堂的论争进行了细致的论述,证实鲁迅一直是五四新文化精神的扞卫与持守战士。赵歌东的《启蒙与革命:鲁迅创作的现代化选择》指出,鲁迅创作选择了彻底的启蒙而反对循环式的为革命而革命,这种“创作的现代化选择表明:在现代化思想启蒙未完成状态下,中国社会自身内部的革命无助于推动中国现代变革过程。”王吉鹏等的《鲁迅留日时期思想转变价值论》认为,鲁迅对近代以来中国文化转型的前瞻性思考中表现出的独特的思维方式、精神操守和人格魅力以及对社会转型精神现象的剖析,对于当代处于同样情境下的知识分子有重要的启示作用。温儒敏的《鲁迅对文化转型的探求与焦虑》针对当前某些试图颠覆鲁迅的现象提出质疑,认为鲁迅对近代中国文化转型有独特的探求,也有不应忽视的焦虑,有时表现为传统批判中的偏激。黄健在《价值重构:取向与差异——论鲁迅与新儒家在现代价值观建构上的本质区别》中认为,鲁迅之所以遭受新儒家的指责,是因为新儒家们不能够理解鲁迅反叛传统、批判传统的思维逻辑,也无法充分地认识到鲁迅完成思想文化观念现代转换之后的思想特点。富强的《个人—现实—文化——鲁迅革命观的内在线索》认为,鲁迅从自我与个人的“立人”立场出发,发现了中国当时的现实与文化传统共同的“反个人”特征,于是鲁迅以此为着眼点,把对两者的批判融为一体。梁展的《自我观念与科学的本源》、《个人意志的发展与虚无主义的起源》、《自我、意志与生命》分别从鲁迅对19世纪科学观念的思索和批判、鲁迅对个人意志的诠释与叔本华的差异及其后果、鲁迅的形而上学及其矛盾等方面对鲁迅文化思想进行了系统探讨。刘增人《论鲁迅的人格范型》认为,“超越性、意志力、审美性、互补性”是鲁迅文化积淀中具有基础和核心意义的特质,这使鲁迅具有了艺术家型、崇高型、理智实现型的人格范型。

   More research results focus on the overall study of Lu Xun's cultural thought. Li Xinyu's Lu Xun: the hard way of enlightenment and 1928: Lu Xun in the new culture crisis think that the contradiction and the controversy of Lu Xun's intervention after the May 4th movement are related to the crisis of the new culture of the May 4th Movement and the Enlightenment position of modern intellectuals. "No matter how the thought of Lu Xun develops and changes, it always protects the new culture movement of the May 4th movement The position of enlightenment and the discourse of modern intellectuals formed on this basis. " Zhao Shuqin pointed out in the lonely adherents of the new cultural spirit that for the May 4th Movement and the new cultural movement, "Lu Xun was neither a pioneer nor a leader, nor too active." Lu Xun actively pursues the scientific spirit of practical realism. In the last decade, Lu Xun's strong points, Qian Liqun believed that the recognition and pursuit of the "real intellectual class", as well as the combination of "thought action" and "actual movement", constituted Lu Xun's cultural achievements in the last decade. "In the 1930s, Lu Xun paid more attention to the critical examination of modern Chinese culture represented by the" sea of today " In the debate between Lu Xun and the modern critics, he examined the debate between Lu Xun and Chen Yuan in detail, and thought that the debate was of great significance in the history of modern Chinese thought, culture, literature and even the spiritual history of Chinese intellectuals. Xue Yi, in his on Lu Xun's cultural debate, made a detailed discussion on the controversy between Lu Xun and Hu Shi, Chen Yuan, Liang Shiqiu, Zhou Zuoren and Lin Yutang, confirming that Lu Xun has always been the defender and defender of the May 4th new cultural spirit. Zhao Gedong's enlightenment and Revolution: the choice of modernization in Lu Xun's creation points out that Lu Xun's creation chose the thorough enlightenment and opposed the circular revolution for revolution, which "the choice of modernization in creation shows that: in the state of incomplete enlightenment of modernization thought, the revolution within the Chinese society itself is not conducive to promoting the process of modern reform in China." According to Wang Jipeng's theory on the value of ideological transformation in the period of Lu Xun's stay in Japan, Lu Xun's unique thinking mode, spiritual integrity and personality charm in his forward-looking thinking on the transformation of Chinese culture since modern times, as well as his analysis of the spiritual phenomenon of social transformation, are of great significance to the contemporary intellectuals in the same situation. Wen's "Lu Xun's quest and anxiety about cultural transformation" questions some of the current attempts to subvert Lu Xun. It holds that Lu Xun has a unique quest for the transformation of modern Chinese culture, as well as anxiety that should not be ignored, sometimes expressed as radicalization in traditional criticism. In Huang Jian's reconstruction of value: orientation and difference -- on the essential difference between Lu Xun and the new Confucianism in the construction of modern values, the reason why Lu Xun was criticized by the new Confucianism was that the new Confucians could not understand Lu Xun's thinking logic of rebelling against and criticizing the tradition, and could not fully understand Lu Xun's ideological characteristics after completing the modern transformation of Ideological and cultural concepts. In his personal reality culture internal clue of Lu Xun's revolutionary view, Lu Xun found the common "anti individual" characteristic of Chinese reality and cultural tradition at that time from the standpoint of self and individual "establishing people", so Lu Xun took this as the point of view and integrated the criticism of both. Liang Zhan's "self-concept and the origin of science", "the development of personal will and the origin of nihilism", "self, will and life" systematically discusses Lu Xun's cultural thought from Lu Xun's thinking and criticism of the scientific concept in the 19th century, Lu Xun's interpretation of personal will and Schopenhauer's differences and consequences, Lu Xun's metaphysics and contradictions, etc. According to Liu Zengren's on Lu Xun's personality model, "transcendence, willpower, aesthetics and complementarity" are the basic and core characteristics in Lu Xun's cultural accumulation, which makes Lu Xun have the personality model of artist, sublime and rational realization.

   关于鲁迅与地域文化关系的研究,主要有陈越的《试论鲁迅的文化性格及其越文化印痕》和王嘉良的《两浙文化传统:鲁迅文化人格形成的内源性因素》,前者认为,鲁迅在作品中流露出的“故乡情结”、精神气质和思维方式都留有越文化的印痕。后者认为,鲁迅从两浙文化中继承的,主要是独特的“硬气”人格力量,与此相关联,是鲁迅创作中的坚硬的“土性”特色和刚毅劲直的文风。

   The research on the relationship between Lu Xun and regional culture mainly includes Chen Yue's "on Lu Xun's cultural character and its traces" and Wang Jialiang's "two Zhejiang cultural traditions: the internal factors of Lu Xun's cultural personality formation". The former thinks that Lu Xun's "Hometown Complex", spiritual temperament and thinking mode revealed in his works have traces of Yue culture. The latter believes that Lu Xun inherited from the two Zhejiang cultures, mainly the unique "hard" personality power, which is related to Lu Xun's hard "local" characteristics and strong and straight style of writing.

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